The farm bill is an omnibus bill (i.e. a package of legislation combined into one bill) passed roughly once every five years. This bill includes the bulk of the federal legislation that relates to agriculture, food, and the food system. As such, it has a massive impact on how food is grown, sold, distributed, and bought in this country.
The last farm bill was passed in 2018 and some of its programs began to expire in September. Congress likely will need to pass an extension of the current farm bill before the end of 2023 to avoid the expiration of many major farm bill programs.